Enabling Growth Through Performance
Enabling Growth Through Performance

SQL Server Indexing – Fill Factor

Setting Appropriate Fill Factors for Optimal Performance


Indexing is an essential component of database performance tuning in SQL Server. It enables the efficient retrieval of data by creating a data structure that maps the values in a specific column or set of columns to their corresponding rows in the table. One critical aspect of index management is setting appropriate fill factors, which can significantly impact the performance of your database. In this article, we will explore the concept of fill factors, how to set them, and their role in optimizing SQL Server indexing.

Understanding Fill Factors

A fill factor is a percentage value that determines how much space SQL Server should leave free on each index page during index creation or rebuilding. This space allows for future growth of the index as new rows are added to the table. Fill factor values range from 1 to 100, with a default value of 0 (which is treated as 100). A higher fill factor value results in less free space on the index pages, whereas a lower fill factor value leads to more free space.

The fill factor plays a crucial role in balancing index storage space usage and minimizing fragmentation. A high fill factor value (leaving more free space) may reduce the need for frequent index maintenance but may lead to increased storage requirements and decreased query performance due to increased I/O operations. On the other hand, a low fill factor value (leaving less free space) can result in more frequent index maintenance and increased fragmentation, which can also degrade query performance.

Setting Appropriate Fill Factors

When setting fill factors, it’s essential to consider your database’s specific workload characteristics and data modification patterns. Here are some general guidelines to help you determine the appropriate fill factor for your indexes:

Default fill factor (0 or 100): This setting is suitable for tables with infrequent data modifications (INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements) or read-heavy workloads. Since the index pages are filled to near capacity, this setting may result in better storage utilization and query performance. However, it may lead to increased fragmentation over time if the table experiences regular data modifications.

Lower fill factor values (e.g., 70-90): These settings are appropriate for tables with frequent data modifications, especially when the modifications occur in the middle or at the beginning of the index. A lower fill factor leaves more free space on index pages, reducing the likelihood of page splits and minimizing fragmentation. However, this approach may require more storage space and result in increased I/O operations.

Adjusting fill factors over time: As your database workload evolves, it’s essential to monitor and adjust fill factors accordingly. Regularly review index fragmentation levels and performance metrics to determine whether the current fill factor settings are still appropriate. Adjusting the fill factor based on real-world data can help you achieve the optimal balance between storage utilization and index maintenance.


Create a new index with a specific fill factor:

ON dbo.YourTableName(YourColumnName)

In this example, the fill factor is set to 80, meaning the index pages will be 80% full, leaving 20% free space for future growth.

Modify an existing index’s fill factor:

ON dbo.YourTableName

In this example, the fill factor is set to 70, meaning the index pages will be 70% full after rebuilding, leaving 30% free space for future growth.

Create a clustered index with a specific fill factor:

ON dbo.YourTableName(YourColumnName)

In this example, the fill factor is set to 90, meaning the index pages will be 90% full, leaving 10% free space for future growth.

Set the fill factor for all new indexes at the database level:


In this examplet, the fill factor is set to 75, meaning all new indexes created in this database will have their index pages 75% full by default, leaving 25% free space for future growth. Note that this setting does not affect existing indexes.


It’s important to choose a fill factor that strikes a balance between minimizing page splits and avoiding excessive wasted space. Monitor your SQL Server’s performance using the Vroom Performance Suite and adjust the fill factor as needed to achieve optimal results.

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